Karnak Temple. That archaeological temple located on the eastern bank of the Nile, specifically in the city of Luxor, which in the ancient Pharaonic eras was called “Thebes,” or “the fortified city,” which was known as “Abit Rust,” meaning the place The most prestigious and revered.
Who built Karnak Temple?
The temple was constructed by King Ramesses III, who ruled from 1186 to 1155 B.C. It is around 230 feet (70 meters) by 88 feet (27 meters), and its hall has columns roughly 23 feet (7 meters) tall.
When was Karnak Temple built?
The Karnak Temple was constructed between 2055 BC and 100 AD. It was built as a religious temple for the gods Amun, Mut, and khonsu. The Karnak Temple, the most significant sacred structure ever built, was referred to by the ancient Egyptians as the “most chosen of locations.”
How was it begun to be built?
The construction of this complex began with a small monastery established during the reign of King Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom. It continued until the Ptolemaic era that long period that witnessed the rule of 30 pharaohs who contributed to its expansion until its area reached 30 hectares, each piece characterized by its characteristics that followed the rule Which I witnessed, even as it included a large group of temples that formed an integrated religious complex.
Facts about Karnak Temple
- In the past, the Karnak temple was known as “Bar Amun,” meaning the house of Amun, the sun god, and fertility. The area around Karnak was called “Ebit-Isut,” meaning the most chosen one, because it was the principal place of worship of the god Amun, and this was found. The name was engraved on the walls of the “Senusret I” cabin, and many other words were taken, including “Nisut-Tawa,” meaning the throne of the two states. With the advent of the Arabic language, it was distorted to become “Karnak.”
- All these names came because the ancient Egyptians believed that “Thebes” was the first city founded on the plateau that rose from the water at the beginning of the earth’s formation. The firm belief at that time was that that plateau rose to stand on the god “Ptah,” who was known as the god “Atum.” He is the “complete” God who presides over the list of the nine of Heliopolis until creation begins. There was a belief that Karnak was an ancient observatory in which the god “Amon” interacted directly with the people of the earth.
- Karnak Temple is the world’s second-largest ancient religious complex after the temple of “Angkor Wat” in Cambodia. It is also considered the second most visited historical site in Egypt, after the Pyramids of Giza. It consists of four main parts: the courtyard of Amun-Ra, the province of Mut. And the area of “Monto” and the temple of “Amenhotep IV” was dismantled, in addition to a few small temples and sanctuaries linking the province of Mut, the Temple of Amun-Re, and the Temple of Luxor.
- There is also a temple for the god “Ptah” and the god “Khonsu,” the god of youth and the moon. It also contains a temple to King “Amenhotep IV,” who was historically known as “Akhenaten” and who ruled Egypt in the fourteenth century BC and built this temple inside Thebes before his call to the one god, “Aten.”
- In the heart of Karnak is the “lake is still considered one of the secrets of the pharaohs, with its water that does not dry out throughout the year. After its distance from the Nile River and the passage of 3 thousand years since its existence, it was dug by the legendary king “Thutmose III,” the sixth pharaoh of the family. In the 18th year, and even now, the strange thing is that it does not dry out despite the factors of loss, evaporation, and leakage, so the women of Luxor have come to believe that it is sacred, and they go to it to seek blessings.
- The length of the lake is 80 meters. In comparison, it reaches 40 meters, and its height reaches 40 meters. Its size comes from the northern and southern lakes, two measures of the Nile, whose task is to determine the dates of the flood every year, and the lake still has two entrances, the first from the eastern side and the second from the western side.
- Karnak, regarded as the world’s most significant religious structure or place, is a museum in the open.
Karnak Temple architecture
- The “road of rams” represents the main gateway to the temple. It consists of two rows of statues for a group of rams. It was called the old “Wat Nather” road. It extends for a distance of 2.7 kilometers, and its width is 76 meters. On its sides, there are 1200 statues in the form of a sphinx with a ram’s head. This head symbolizes the god Amun and was placed in this way as a kind of protection for the temple, and at the other end of the road of rams, there is another great edifice, the Luxor Temple.
- As soon as we pass through the gate, we find the courtyard of “Amun-Re”, which is a large courtyard with an area of about 250 thousand square meters. Work began on its construction during the 18th dynasty when Thebes became the united capital of ancient Egypt. On the left of it there is one of the Taharqa columns, in addition to a statue of Benzom I, and on the right is the temple of Ramses III.
- In the facade, there is a hall of columns, whose construction began in the era of the 18th dynasty, while most of the hall was completed during the reign of the 19th dynasty kings, “City I” and “Ramses II.” It comes in 16 successive rows, including 122 columns with a height of 10 meters, while there are 12 other columns with a height of 21 meters, and the diameter of each column is 3 meters. A group of small rooms and courtyards and this temple were entered only by the pharaoh and monks.
- On top of these columns, there are supports, each of which weighs approximately 70 tons. It is believed that they were raised to this height using cranes. Still, because this process takes a long time and requires an outstanding balance to reach these great heights, an alternative theory has been settled on how to transfer it, which is That the pharaohs created large cliffs of sand, mud, and stone, and then pulled these giant stones, up to the top of the cliffs, to place them and settle each piece on top of the column designated for it.
Why Karnak temple is important
- The Value of the Temple of Karnak
- The Karnak Temple Complex was the heart of the ancient religion during the New Kingdom when Thebes (modern-day Luxor) was the center of authority. Its magnitude is a reflection of its significance.
- In addition to its sacred significance, it served as the New Kingdom pharaohs’ treasury, administrative hub, and palace. The structure is still regarded as the most significant temple complex ever built anywhere around the globe.
- It was built over 1500 years, with additions made by successive pharaohs, and it resulted in an unrivaled collection of temples, sanctuaries, towers, and other ornaments in all of Egypt.
- The complex underwent considerable expansions under the rule of notable pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Tuthmose III, Seti I, and Ramesses II during the New Kingdom. Still, work continued into the Greco-Roman Period under the influence of the Ptolemies, Romans, and early Christians.
Karnak Temple Sacred Lake
The “holy lake” surrounds the temple from the east, south, and west and is situated outside the great hall of the Karnak temple, where a sizable scarab figure from King Amenhotep III’s reign is on display.
The monarch and the high priest washed in the lake’s waters before entering the Holy of Holies, the most significant room in the temple and also known as the room of the “mythical Lord of the temple,” which was used for purification, washing, and cleaning, most likely during rites.
The priests used to take baths in the lake’s holy water before beginning religious rites or ceremonies, which is how the lake got its moniker.
According to Wardani, the Holy Lake’s miraculous qualities include the fact that its water never runs out, that it has been present all year long for more than 3000 years, and that its water level is constant and never changes without rising or falling.
Karnak Sound and light show
The sound and light transport you to Thebes, the former capital, where you can explore its historic streets; As we reveal one element after another, pay attention to the loud details.
She reads many chapters to you; They insulted him since he is a human deity of humility. Therefore, they wandered between the lines.
The ancients used their intellect to construct this metropolis! What makes it “good”? Did it not own a third of all antiquities in the world?
Tell you the past secrets in the Karnak Temple’s Sound and Light Show.
Take you to see magic in its place of origin; you’ll see it written on the walls to escape reality in a single hour.
Book your Ticket Sound and Light Show at Karnak Temple
Luxor is one of Egypt’s most priceless legacies regarding ancient Egyptian culture. The Karnak Temple is one of Luxor’s famous temples, surrounded by many other impressive old structures.
The name Karnak was given to this complex because it comprises several temples, chapels, and other buildings in the shape of a village. In Arabic, Karnak means “walled village.”
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