The Giza Plateau is one of the most famous historical sites in the world. Geologically, it is just a rocky plateau overlooking the Nile Valley, which is no different from the other plateaus in the region. If it is so well known, it is home to the Necropolis Giza very large burial complex used mainly during the Fourth Dynasty and whose three main tombs are the largest pyramids in Egypt. This plateau also houses a large number of other buildings, such as temples, a workers’ village, the Sphinx, etc.
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What is the Giza complex famous for and where is located?
One of the world’s most important and well-known ancient sites is the Giza complex, which is situated about 15 miles southwest of the current city of Cairo. It is the location of the Great Pyramid, the only surviving example of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Why was the Giza Complex built?
They merely organized the space to make working there safe and straightforward. The paving of the plateau was the main improvement. Although it is unknown today, the Giza complex was fully paved before the pyramids and temples were built there.
Why is it called the Giza Complex?
The Fourth Dynasty Giza Necropolis houses the Great Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, the Sphinx, numerous graves, a workers’ hamlet, and an industrial complex; it is located on the Giza Complex, a plateau in Giza, Egypt, on the outskirts of Cairo.
The name of Giza at first In ancient Egypt, the location currently known as Giza (or Gizah) was known as Imentet (the West) or Kher Neter (the Necropolis).
When was the Necropolis Giza Built?
The Great Pyramid of Giza, the earliest of the pyramids, was constructed between 2550 and 2560 BC under the rule of the Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and it is roughly 4,500 years old. The Pyramid of Menkaure, constructed between 2510 and 2500 BC, was the last pyramid to be built after the Pyramid of Khafre, finished in 2570 BC.
Even during the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, many of the tombs and cemeteries at the Giza Complex were expanded after the pyramids were built (c. 2500–2180 BC).
Who Built the Necropolis Giza?
Three pharaohs from Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty had their royal tombs built inside the Pyramids of Giza (which lasted from 2575–2465 BCE). Khufu, the second monarch of this dynasty of rulers, had the northernmost and oldest pyramid constructed for him.
Khafre, the fourth monarch of this dynasty and one of Khufu’s sons, was the recipient of the middle pyramid. Menkaure, Khafre’s son and successor, erected the final and southernmost pyramid.
Numerous smaller subsidiary pyramids, including those of Khufu’s mother, Hetepheres, his wife Henutsen, and Khentkaus, Menkaure’s daughter, are located all around the three main pyramids.
Giza complex attraction:
1- The Khufu Pyramid
The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the oldest in Giza. Construction on it commenced approximately 2600 BC, and it was finished around 2570 BC. It has three well-known chambers that served as the king’s tomb and storage space for his goods. Khufu is also connected to three more miniature queen’s pyramids and two boat pits. This pyramid stood 137 meters tall and was thought to be the most elevated artificial construction for thousands of years.
2- The Pyramid of Khafre
Then, Khafre, Khufu’s son, built the following pyramid: It is the second-tallest pyramid in Giza at 136 meters. As it rises on higher land, it resembles Khufu’s Pyramid and was finished around 2570 BC. The original polished marble casing that covered its peak still serves as its cap. This pyramid complex also includes a Valley Temple with multiple statues of Khafre and the Great Sphinx.
3- The Pyramid of Menkaure
Around 2510 BC, the final Giza pyramid was constructed for Menkaure, Khafre’s son. With only 62m, it is the smallest of the three main pyramids. Some stones are thought to have been left unfinished because the pharaoh Menkaure passed away before the building was finished. Along with three lesser pyramids, the Menkaure pyramid is surrounded by a valley temple that formerly housed several statues of the pharaoh.
4- The Great Sphinx of Giza
The Great Sphinx is a vast sculpture that may be found next to the Khafre’s Valley Temple. Because it resembled their mythological winged monster with a man’s head and a lion’s body, the ancient Greeks called it “the Sphinx.” Although its purpose is unknown, it was carved out of the bedrock under Khafre’s rule and is thought to depict his features. Around 2510 BC was finished.
5- The Queen’s Pyramids
Three smaller pyramids, some of which are only 20 meters tall, can be seen east of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. These are the Queens’ Pyramids, also known as Khufu’s wives and sisters’ graves. They consist of the Queens Meritites, Henutsen, his wife, and the Pyramid of Hetepheres, Khufu’s mother. There are three further tiny Queens’ Pyramids south of the Pyramid of Menkaure, although it is unknown who is interred there. Built around 2600–2500 BC
6- Saqqara Complex
One of Egypt’s most significant archaeological sites is Saqqara, which may be found around 33 kilometers south of Cairo. The site was used as a cemetery for more than 3,000 years, during which
the time it was home to the 4,700-year-old Step Pyramid, which is Egypt’s oldest surviving pyramid and is about 200 years older than the more renowned Pyramids at Giza.
When the pyramids were being built, many royals and nobles who were not as important chose to be buried on the Giza plateau. Hundreds of tombs and mastabas are lined up in rows and streets today.
Giza plateau map:
Millions of people visit the Giza Necropolis every year, making it one of the most popular places to see in all of Egypt. Egypt is a UNESCO Heritage Site and one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and it is also home to the Pyramids of Giza and many other old buildings. Find out more about the Giza Necropolis and what you can see there.
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